fenart - Школа 11 класс Английский язык Module_3_11 Progress and Civilisation

Школа 11 класс Английский язык Module_3_11 Progress and Civilisation

Школа 11 класс Английский язык Module_3_11 Progress and Civilisation

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Progress and Civilisation

Ancient Civilisations

1. Read the text about a time capsule. Translate the underlined words and set 5 questions to the text.

A time capsule is a collection of objects put together to preserve the memory of a place, experience, or group of people at one point in time. People often make time capsules for special public occasions, and for others to open many years in the future. You can make one to celebrate a family event, to remind you of a special experience, or to remember friends, family, or school – or something else important to you.

Time capsules are meant to preserve things over time, so this is an opportunity for some basic preservation science! All materials decay, but some deteriorate very, very slowly and others very fast.

The first choice for your time capsule is the container. It should keep out air and liquid, and be strong enough to protect the contents if it's dropped or something is dropped on it. It should be made of a material that is chemically stable.

Choose pictures or other objects that will be fun to remind you of what things were like when you made the capsule. The more stable the chemistry of your items, the less damage they're likely to experience over time. Clean, dry black-and-white photographs, items printed or written with archival ink on archival paper, undamaged metal or fabrics, and glass, stone, ceramic, or plastics are the safest choices. Food, fresh plants, or any other living items are not! Computer media (discs, memory sticks, etc.) may be a poor choice, too. Even if they don't suffer damage over time, if you open your time capsule 10 or 20 years in the future, the computer device you need to read the file may no longer be available.

A recent example of a time capsule is the Keo sphere which will be sent into space with: instructions for building a twenty-first-century DVD player; pictures of human faces; a record of all human languages and accumulated knowledge; a pinch of soil; a drop of ocean water; a sample of air; a drop of blood.

 

2. Now imagine you have a time machine and answer the following questions (30 words each):

  1. What civilization would you choose to go if you had a time machine? Why (give at least three reasons)?

  2. What would you try to tell the people about your country?

  3. What objects would you take with you in a time capsule and why?

3. Look at the photos of famous landmarks. Which of them would you like to visit and why? (answer – not less than 40 words)

http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/awe-inspiring-landmarks-around-the-world/

 

4. Read the information about the explorer Hiram Bingham and his work. Decide which of the sentences are T (true) and which are F (false).

  • Hiram Bingham was an American politician. ( )

  • He might be a prototype for the Indiana Jones character. ( )

  • His father was famous for the translation of the Bible into the Romanian language. ( )

  • His most important discovery is the last Inca capital Vitcos. ( )

Hiram Bingham (1875-1956) had an extraordinary life. He was successively a protestant pastor, a land surveyor, a museum curator, a university professor, a World War I pilot and an American politician. However, he is best remembered as an explorer, archaeologist and discoverer of lost cities. Bingham has been cited as one possible basis for the Indiana Jones character. His book Lost City of the Incas became a bestseller upon its publication in 1948.

Hiram Bingham was born on November 19, 1875 in Honolulu, Hawaii ... His grandfather lived from 1789-1869 and was the first Protestant missionary to go to the Hawaiian Islands.

His father, who was also a missionary, is mostly remembered for his work in the Gilbert Islands and his translation of the Bible into Gilbertese.

He received his B.A. degree from Yale University in 1898, and then went to the University of California, then Harvard University, from 1900-1905 for postgraduate study in history and political science.

In November 1906 Bingham sailed to South America to follow the route Bolivar (an explorer

Bingham had studied). He wrote about his travels. Next, he explored the old Spanish trade route from Buenos Aires, Argentina to Lima, Peru across South America. In 1911, Bingham again set out for South America, this time as the Director of the Peruvian Expedition. On this expedition he located the site of the last Inca capital Vitcos. The following year Bingham made another discovery, perhaps his most important one, the discovery of Machu Picchu the “lost city”. As World War I began, Bingham turned to politics and the military as a way of life.

In 1916, he was a captain in the Connecticut National Guard. Hiram Bingham married Alfreda Mitchell on November 20, 1900 and had seven sons. He died in Washington at the age of 80, on June 6, 1956.

 

5. Read the extracts from Bingham’s book ‘Lost City of the Incas’, Bingham’s adventure at Machu Picchu. Translate the underlined words.

Extract A

The morning 24th July 1911 dawned in cold drizzle. Arteaga shivered and seemed inclined to stay in his hut. I offered to pay him well if he would show me the ruins. He refused and said it was too hard a climb for such a wet day. But when he found out I was willing to pay him more, he finally agreed to go. When asked where the ruins were, he pointed straight to the top of the mountain. No one supposed that they would be particularly interesting. And no one cared to go with me. The naturalist said that there would be “more butterflies near the river!” The surgeon said he had to wash his clothes and mend them. Anyhow, it was my job to investigate all reports of ruins and try to find the Inca capital.

So, accompanied only by Sergeant Carrasco, we left camp at ten o’clock on July 24th. After a walk of three-quarters of an hour, Arteaga left the main road and plunged down through the jungle to the bank of the river. Here there was a primitive bridge that crossed the roaring rapids at its narrowest part. I confessed that I got down on my hands and knees and crawled across, six inches at a time. Leaving the stream, we now struggled up the bank through dense jungle and in a few minutes reached the bottom of a very steep slope. For an hour and twenty minutes we had a hard climb. A good part of the distance we went on all fours… The humidity was great. The heat was excessive; and I was not in training! There were no ruins of any kind in sight. I began to think my companions had made the right choice.’

Extract B

The men met some Indians who told Sergeant Carrasco that the ruins were a little further along and gave them a little boy to act as their guide. After leaving the hut, they strolled across some open ground and went into the forest beyond.

Suddenly, I found myself confronted with the walls of ruined houses built of the finest quality Inca stone work. It was difficult to see them because they were partly covered with trees and moss....We scrambled along through the dense undergrowth and then...without any warning, the boy showed me a cave, beautifully lined with the finest stone. Clearly, it was the work of a master artist. It all seemed like an unbelievable dream. It fairly took my breath away. What could this place be? Why had no one given us any idea of it?’ The little boy persuaded them to climb up another steep slope.

Surprise followed surprise in bewildering succession. We found ourselves standing in front

of the ruins of two of the finest and most interesting structures in ancient America. Made of beautiful white granite, the walls contained blocks higher than a man. The sight held me

spellbound. Each building had only three walls and was open on one side. The principal

temple had walls twelve feet high....The building did not look as though it ever had a roof so

the sun could be welcomed here by the priests. I could scarcely believe my senses as I

examined the larger stones and estimated that they must weigh ten to fifteen tons each.

Would anyone believe what I had found? Fortunately, I had a good camera and the sun was

shining.’

 

6. Decide which of the sentences are T (true) and which are F (false).

  1. Carrasco was a local guide. ( )

  2. The other members of the expedition decided not to go because they were not interested. ( )

  3. Arteaga decided to go through the dense jungle. ( )

  4. The walls of the ruined houses could be seen from a far distance. ( )

  5. Bingham tried to estimate the weight of the stones. ( )