Школа 11 класс Английский язык Module_2_11 Different Cultures
Школа 11 класс Английский язык Module_2_11 Different Cultures
1. Talking about cultures. Answer the questions (not less than 25 words each). and try to make your own sentences with the words and idioms you don’t know.
1. What is a culture? (literature, language, music, cuisine, etc…?)
2. What is the most interesting about your culture?
3. What do you know about your culture?
4. What do you like about your culture?
5. What don’t you like about your culture?
6. Are you proud of your culture?
7. Is there any essential difference between your culture and the others?
8. Could you marry someone from a completely different culture? Why? Why not?
9. Do you know what people from other countries think about your culture?
10. Which culture do you admire, and why?
11. Which culture don’t you like, and why?
12. What may surprise foreigners in your culture?
13. Do you know any aspects of foreign cultures that you consider unusual in your country? Give examples.
14. Have you ever experienced any cultural differences among people?
15. How important is it to know the culture of the country that you are going to visit?
16. What is considered polite in your country?
17. What is considered impolite in your country?
18. Do you know people from other cultures?
19. How do you feel when you are in a completely new culture?
20. What does the proverb “when in Rome, do as the Romans do” mean? Is it a good piece of advice?
21. “The more you know the culture, the better you use the language”. Do you agree with the statement?
22. If you could choose 3 aspects of your culture to show them to future generations, what would they be?
2. Translate the words in bold and make your own sentences with them.
1. culture -
the particular way of life, including customs, beliefs, ways of behavior, etc., typical for a particular group at a particular time
What I especially like about travelling, is getting to know new cultures.
2. cuisine -
a particular style of cooking typical for a country or a region
I love Japanese cuisine, especially sushi.
3. proud of -
feeling pleasure and satisfaction, because you or other people that are important to you have done something good and important
I am really proud of my country and its great achievements.
4. essential -
There are some essential differences in Japanese culture that you should get familiar with before going there in order to avoid troubles.
5. admire -
to respect something or approve of something; to consider something very attractive and interesting
American people admire European culture because of its variety.
6. surprise -
to make somebody feel unusual because of some unexpected event
I was really surprised of the way that African tribe greeted people!
7. foreigner -
a person that comes from another country
Englishmen in America often feel like foreigners, despite the fact that they speak the same language.
8. foreign -
related to a country which is not your own
She loves her job, because it gives her numerous opportunities to visit foreign countries.
9. to consider -
to believe somebody or something to be…
I think she’s an exceptional beauty, although my friends consider her ugly.
10. unusual -
different from somebody or something in an interesting way
Women taking up high positions in companies are not as unusual as in the past.
11. experience -
to feel something that happens to you
They’ve never experienced a greater loss since the death of their brother.
12. polite -
behaving in a way that respects other people, their feelings and customs
It was so polite that you ate my grandmother’s soup, although you don’t like it at all.
13. impolite -
behaving in a way that doesn’t respect other people, their feelings and customs
It is very impolite in my family to leave the table until the others have finished eating.
14. proverb -
a sentence that gives advice or state something commonly known
The proverb says that a bad workman always blames his tools. I agree with it!
15. piece of advice (level: upper intermediate)
a personal opinion about what you should do in a particular situation
My mum gave me a good piece of advice again. She always makes me avoid troubles!
16. to agree with -
to have the same opinion as somebody else, to accept an idea, offer, suggestion
Yesterday he suggested that we should change some points of our project and I totally agree with him.
something that somebody says or writes in an official way
The group of students made a statement about the increase of public transport prices.
18. aspect -
a part of a problem, situation, topic
The weather always influences all aspects of human life.
19. generation -
people at about the same age that live at a particular time
The generation of our grandparents is much more conservative than other people.
20. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. -
When you are in a different country, you should behave the same way as the people living there.
I felt so strange in Japan, but I relied on the advice “when in Rome, do as the Romans do”, which helped me to avoid unpleasant and confusing situations.
21. a culture shock -
a feeling of being surprised or confused that you get when you are in a country that is different from your own
When you go to China from any other country, be prepared for a culture shock. Everything is different there!
3. Read the text about culture shock.
a) Have you found out anything new about culture shock? Have you ever experienced culture shock? If yes, try to describe the stages you have experienced.
b) Translate the underlined words.
c) Make your own questions to the text and write them down (not less than 7 questions).
Leaving home and travelling to study in a new country can be a stressful experience. Even though it may be something you have planned and prepared for, the extent of the change and the effects it has on you may take you by surprise. If you find that the effects of the change surprise you, it might be helpful to realise that your experience is quite normal. This applies whatever country you come from, and wherever you are going to study, even though some cultures are more similar than others because of geographic, historic, demographic and other connections.
What is culture shock?
"Culture shock" describes the impact of moving from a familiar culture to one, which is unfamiliar. It is an experience described by people who have travelled abroad to work, live or study; it can be felt to a certain extent even when abroad on holiday. It can affect anyone, including international students. It includes the shock of a new environment, meeting lots of new people and learning the ways of a different country. It also includes the shock of being separated from the important people in your life, maybe family, friends, colleagues, teachers: people you would normally talk to at times of uncertainty, people who give you support and guidance. When a familiar sight, sounds, smells or tastes are no longer there you can miss them very much. If you are tired and jet-lagged when you arrive small things can be upsetting and out of all proportion to their real significance.
The following are some of the elements that contribute to culture shock:
Many students find that the British climate affects them a lot. You may be used to a much warmer climate, or you may just find the greyness and dampness, especially during the winter months, difficult to get used to.
You may find British food strange. It may taste different, or be cooked differently, or it may seem bland or heavy compared to what you are used to. If you are in self-catering accommodation and unused to cooking for yourself, you may find yourself relying on “fast” food instead of your usual diet. Try to find a supplier of familiar food, and eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.
Constantly listening and speaking in a foreign language is tiring. If English is not your first language, you may find that you miss your familiar language, which at home would have been part of your everyday environment. Even if you are a fluent English speaker it is possible that the regional accents you discover when you arrive in the UK will make the language harder to understand. People may also speak quickly and you may feel embarrassed to ask them to repeat what they have said.
If you come from a warm climate, you may find it uncomfortable to wear heavy winter clothing. Not all students will find the British style of dress different but, for some, it may seem immodest, unattractive, comical or simply drab.
Social behaviours may confuse, surprise or offend you. For example you may find people appear cold and distant or always in a hurry. This may be particularly likely in the centre of large cities. Or you may be surprised to see couples holding hands and kissing in public. You may find the relationships between men and women more formal or less formal than you are used to, as well as differences in same sex social contact and relationships.
'Rules' of behaviour
As well as the obvious things that hit you immediately when you arrive, such as sights, sounds, smells and tastes, every culture has unspoken rules which affect the way people treat each other. These may be less obvious but sooner or later you will probably encounter them and once again the effect may be disorientating. For example there will be differences in the ways people decide what is important, how tasks are allocated and how time is observed. The British generally have a reputation for punctuality. In business and academic life keeping to time is important. You should always be on time for lectures, classes, and meetings with academic and administrative staff. If you are going to be late for a meeting do try to let whoever you are meeting know. Social life is a little more complicated. Arranging to meet to see a film at 8pm means arriving at 8pm. But if you are invited to visit someone’s home for dinner at 8pm, you should probably aim to arrive at about ten minutes after eight, but not later than about twenty past. When going to a student party an invitation for 8pm probably means any time from 9.30 onwards! These subtle differences can be difficult to grasp and can contribute to culture shock.
Although you may first become aware of cultural differences in your physical environment, e.g. food, dress, behaviour, you may also come to notice that people from other cultures may have very different views of the world from yours. Cultures are built on deeply embedded sets of values, norms, assumptions and beliefs. It can be surprising and sometimes distressing to find that people do not share some of your most deeply held ideas, as most of us take our core values and beliefs for granted and assume they are universally held. As far as possible, try to suspend judgment until you understand how parts of a culture fit together into a coherent whole. Try to see what people say or do in the context of their own culture’s norms. This will help you to understand how other people see your behaviour, as well as how to understand theirs. When you understand both cultures, you will probably find some aspects of each that you like and others that you don’t.
A model of culture shock
The process of culture shock can be illustrated by a model known as the “W” curve. This model may not relate to your experience or only partially. Sometimes the process is faster or slower. Many people go through different phases of the process of adjustment several times, so parts of the curve in the diagram may repeat themselves. For instance, at significant times such as important family dates or festivals you may feel distressed or lonely, while at other times you feel quite settled. However, many people have reported that this model has reflected something of their experience and they have found it helpful to realise they are not the only ones to have had these feelings. The process can be broken down into 5 stages:
1. The “honeymoon” stage. When you first arrive in a new culture, differences are intriguing and you may feel excited, stimulated and curious. At this stage you are still protected by the close memory of your home culture.
2. The “distress” stage. A little later, differences create an impact and you may feel confused, isolated or inadequate as cultural differences intrude and familiar supports (e.g. family or friends) are not immediately available.
3. “Re-integration” stage. Next you may reject the differences you encounter. You may feel angry or frustrated, or hostile to the new culture. At this stage you may be conscious mainly of how much you dislike it compared to home. Don’t worry, as this is quite a healthy reaction. You are reconnecting with what you value about yourself and your own culture.
4. “Autonomy” stage. Differences and similarities are accepted. You may feel relaxed, confident, more like an old hand as you become more familiar with situations and feel well able to cope with new situations based on your growing experience.
5. “Independence” stage. Differences and similarities are valued and important. You may feel full of potential and able to trust yourself in all kinds of situations. Most situations become enjoyable and you are able to make choices according to your preferences and values.
Some of the effects of culture shock
Some of the symptoms of culture shock can be worrying themselves. For example, you may find your health is affected and you may get headaches or stomach aches or you may start worrying about your health more than previously. You may find it difficult to concentrate and as a result find it harder to focus on your course work. Other people find they become more irritable or tearful and generally their emotions seem more changeable. All of these effects can in themselves increase your anxiety.
How to help yourself
Though culture shock is normally a temporary phase, it is important to know there are things you can do to help so that some of these worrying effects can be minimised. Don’t feel “this isn’t going to happen to me”. Culture shock can hit you whatever culture you come from and however experienced or well-travelled you are.
Simply understanding that this is a normal experience may in itself be helpful.
Keeping in touch with home is an important part of living in a different country. The internet makes it very easy to maintain regular contact, for example by using web-based chat or voice calls, or by sharing news, information and photos of your life in the UK through online social networks. However, maintaining very regular (perhaps daily) contact with home, especially when you first arrive, or if you are finding aspects of life in the UK challenging, can actually make the process of settling in more difficult. Try to balance maintaining contact with home with taking time to get to know your new environment. Similarly, if you live close enough to travel home at weekends, it is a good idea not to go home too often. Once or twice a term is probably best. Newspapers and satellite TV will also be an option for some people, again, see what is available for international students in your college or university.
Have familiar things around you that have personal meaning, such as photographs or ornaments.
Find a supplier of familiar food if you can. Your student adviser or a student society may be able to help. Eat a healthy and balanced diet.
Take regular exercise. As well as being good for your health it can be a way of meeting people.
Make friends with international students, whether from your own culture or from others, as they will understand what you’re feeling and, if possible, make friends with the local students so you can learn more about each other’s culture. Be prepared to take the first step and find activities which will give you a common interest with UK students e.g. sports, music or volunteering.
Take advantage of all the help that is offered by your institution. In particular, the orientation programme offered by most colleges and universities can be a valuable way of meeting people and finding out about things that can help you.
Use the university or college services, where there will be professional and experienced staff. For example the health service, the counselling service, the International Office or hall wardens will provide a friendly, listening ear. Even if at home you wouldn’t consider such steps, in the UK it is quite normal and they may help when your familiar helpers are missing. If you are finding settling down difficult, your personal tutor probably also needs to know. She or he may be able to help, particularly with adjusting to a different academic system.
For some students linking with a faith community will put you in touch with a familiar setting, whether it is a church, mosque, synagogue or temple. Many universities have a chaplainry in which several faiths may be represented. There may also be religious student societies. Many chaplainries welcome students of all faiths for pastoral or social activities.
Investigate the Students’ Union and its societies. There may be an opportunity to learn a new sport or activity or continue an interest from home. A further advantage is that these societies bring together students from different courses and countries with a shared interest. There are often national societies that will celebrate significant occasions such as Chinese New Year or Thanksgiving. For UK students, student societies can be one of the many ways of making new friends.
Above all find some one to talk to who will listen uncritically and with understanding, rather than isolating yourself.
It is important to stress that culture shock is entirely normal, usually unavoidable and not a sign that you have made a mistake or that you won’t manage. In fact there are very positive aspects of culture shock. The experience can be a significant learning experience, making you more aware of aspects of your own culture as well as the new culture you have entered. It will give you valuable skills that will serve you in many ways now and in the future and which will be part of the benefit of an international education.
4. Listen to the BBC Report on time keeping and punctuality in different cultures.
What’s the attitude to time and punctuality in
a) Africa, Middle East, South America
d) North America